''Whenever you are confronted with an opponent,
Conquer him with love.' - Mahatma Gandhi
.

title

travail abstrait, démarche conceptuelle...
le commentaire de civilisation

méthodologie, vocabulaire
.

2003 : et patati, et... patatras!

> "La civi est déjà tombée en 2002 (a-t-on jamais vu la civi tomber 2 ans de suite ?) donc exit la civili en 2003... Gulliver est tombé à l'externe et on a déjà tant écrit dessus... Reste Donne, superbe, mais pas très intéressant en disserte, plus intéressant en explica texte - c'est un peu dommage de faire disserter sur de la poésie sans le texte sous les yeux, donc Donne possible en disserte en fac mais pas le jour du concours... etc..."
- candidat/candide-âme/dame-Soleil...

NDWM
: Ces cogitations n'ont pas d'influence sur le jury, seul décideur des sujets!

En
2002, filant entre autres les supputations peu soupesées d'une Reimsoise préparatrice, les spéculations autour d'une éventuelle non-sortie de Crime à l'écrit, avaient coûté cher à plus d'un/e : c'est l'impasse qui ne paye pas!

bullet

I/ CIVI CIVILI CIVILISATION
A L'AGREG IN
TERNE ET AU CAPES

> Conseils bibliographiques, concernant la méthodologie pour l'épreuve de civilisation, donnés par Anton Capet

1. Le document de civilisation britannique (Colette Bernas, Elisabeth Gaudin, François Poirier)
Ophrys.

2. Profession enseignant, préparer le CAPES d'anglais. Coordonné par Kathleen Julié,
Hachette Education.

Ces 2 ouvrages comportent une section méthodologique.

AH CAPELLA : ne pas confondre cet AC avec Sire Alex Capelle de Pau (auteur a medio voce du célèbre "parlez sans tonitruer, ni comme à confesse" in Rap interne 96), ni avec Maître Capelovici, autre éméritus collègue hispano-spatio-linguiste.

Antoine (pas Andy) Capet f
ait autorité en la matière car auteur pendant quelques années il fut du rapport sur l'épreuve écrite à l'agrég externe.

Un bé mol : ces conseils datant de
1997, d'autres opus ont été layettés depuis... Et donc on(e) est prié(e) de se reporter aux rap de jury 2000, 2001, 2002...

BEAUX BERGERS

S'agissant de la queste de la best ouvrage, des marchands du temple aux noms plus magico-prophétiques les uns que les autres - Ellipses, Editions du Temps, Messène,... proposent recueils et articles sur les points au programme, et même en mettent en ligne.

Ex : téléchargeable en format PDF, 30 pages du pavé de
Bernard Gilbert' La dissertation de civilisation.

Naturellement, chaque article traite un point précis, et tous se terminent par une bibliographie...

Il suffit alors de voir quel ouvrage est mentionné le plus souvent - mieux vaudrait sans doot lire un ouvrage + des articles, ou 2 ouvrages.
..

LIRE EN ANGLAIS

Enfin, il faut lire en anglais, à fins d'une part d'enrichir son vocabulaire dissertifique, de l'autre d'autre d'avoir un point de vue autre que, que, celui des monoversitaires français.

Il faut également se rappeller que si la civili tombe à l'écrit, le sujet sera probablement autour d'une citation, et qu'après avoir expliqué ce que veut dire l'auteur, il n'est pas forcément mal venu de le
contredire éventuellement. -

Merci à Johannes-Marcus Comon l'Agrégé, de qui nous nous sommes inspirés pour s/ces conseils.

Ponders a Brad Mill :
Romans believed that using "uncommon language" the audience would feel educated. Recent experience shows that by using a vocabulary that the audience is unfamiliar with only loses their attention. This completely contradicts the beliefs and practices of the ancient Romans. Their choice of style would depend on the subject matter. Today's writers alter their style according to the audience. Isn't it ? So, keep the jury's taste in mind ! and do do in Rome as the Romans do.

LA DISSERTATION d'AGREG - de la méthode, et des attrapes jurinigaudières - en 2003 on ne dit plus disserte, mais compote...


2
/ METHODOLOGIE POSSIBLE
du commentaire de texte
en civilisation

- avec nos très très vifs remerciements
à notre collègue certi
fié Sylvère FUSEAU.

I . Introduction

  • Identify the document : give its title, date and place of publication.
  • Specify whether it is a primary source (chronicle, political speech, letter, diary, interview, public or private record, autobiography, manifesto, legal document, etc.) or a secondary source  which comments upon or interprets a primary source
  • Give some brief information about the author (his name, whether he is well known or unknown) and about the historical, economic and political context which might have led the author to write the document.
  • Did the document play an active role in history? Define the main topic  (trade unions, immigration, etc) in one or two sentences and present the point of view of the author (sympathetic, ironical, indignant, objective) without going into detail
  • Present the main arguments, major sections and basic ideas in the text while indicating the key words (they convey the authorĽs intention).
  • Indicate which aspects of, or ideas in the document you will discuss.

II . Commentary

  • Each part of your commentary must correspond to one major aspect of, or to one basic idea in the document. Give clear quotes and references (specify which line or paragraph you are referring to). Give an explanation for the part of the text you are referring to, and show how it relates to the main idea you are discussing at the time.

  • You may argue for or against the logic of the authorĽs argument.
  • Does he seem to contradict himself?
  • What facts are given, which are withheld?
  • What evidence is presented?
  • You might review he main concepts expressed in the text and compare them with the other documents. What are the explicit / implicit aims or biases of the author? It might help you to consider the public he is writing for, the effects he wants to produce (style, tone) and to show how he is being objective or ironical, etc.


III . Conclusion


You may ask whether the document helps to understand or explain one or more aspects of British or American civilization.

  • What is the value of the document?
  • Is it reliable?
  • Does it represent a purely personal position or is it representative of a school of though?
  • You may also refer to what has happened since Âhave events that occurred later proven the author wrong or right?
  • Do you have a personal opinion on the matter?

Some things to remember :

  • Avoid paraphrase.
  • Always keep distance (are the sources mentioned coherent and reliable?).
  • Keep in mind that you must comment on the manner in which ideas are presented in the document.
.


Méthodologie : du vocabulaire pour le
commentaire de texte en civilisation

Cette liste nĽest aucunement limitative. Les barres obliques indiquent que les mots peuvent être substitués les uns aux autres grammaticalement. Ce qui nĽimplique rien quand au sens de ces mots ou expressions.
 


I . Introduction


a . Origin, date, title, author, addressee

  • This text is an extract from
  • This is a passage from
  • This extract is taken from
  • ┴┴┴┴┴┴┴ is part of
  • The extract we are commenting upon / on is taken from
  • a book / a history book
  • an essay / a pamphlet
  • a poem
  • an Act of Parliament
  • a newspaper article
  • a letter, etc÷
  • which was published in (date), that is to say  at a time when / [X] was King of England / [Y] had been King of England for 10 years / England had been at war with France for 12 years÷

OR:

  • In  [title of the text]┤, which is an extract from [Title of the Book], a [÷] published in [÷], that is to say [÷], [X] deals with÷
  • It is entitled  [÷]┤
  • It is contemporary account of÷ / a primary source, since the writer witnesses (took part in) the events he relates here / lived in England during the period referred to in the document.
  • His view can be expected to be biased as, at the time, he was÷

OR:

  • In spite of the authorĽs position this a rather objective account of÷

OR:

  • It is a secondary source.
  • The writer gives us his view with the benefit of hindsight.
  • He can be expected to have / an objective / an impartial / a global view / of the events.

OR:

  • in spite of the fact that is a rather biased approach of÷, since it÷
  • It was written by [X], who was ÷ at the time of the events related / mentioned / here. We can therefore expect his view to be rather objective / subjective / biased / prejudiced÷, all the more so since at that time÷
  • The English reformation was written by A.G. Dickens, a famous historian of the period who is mainly concerned with the religious aspect of the question. It is therefore a secondary source, so÷
  • This letter was addressed to ÷ who was÷
  • As this book had been banned, it was circulated in secret in England and therefore was not widely read.
  • This sermon / speech was delivered to an audience of÷, hence the style, which is÷

b . Main subject

  • This passage deals with / is about / concerns / is concerned with / + GN
  • The point in question in this text is + GN
  • The main topic / subject / of this passage is + GN
  • Be careful! The subject is not the same as the theme. e.g. (you read  for example┤): the theme of DickensĽs text is  Henri VIIIĽs divorce┤. Its subject is  the assessment of the religious and political consequences for England of Henri VIIIĽs divorce┤.

c. Approach

  • This passage is a general approach / a description / a detailed description / a descriptive approach / an analysis / an objective analysis / an impartial relation / a polemical account / an impassioned narrative / a eulogy / a (violent) criticism / a parody / a revaluation / an assessment  of + GN.

d . Main point and structure of the text

  • In / through this document the author aims at putting across the view that÷ / conveying / expressing the idea that÷ / convincing the reader that÷
  • The structure of this text is very clear / quite straightforward.

OR:

  • The structure of this passage is rather confused.
  • The author starts by stating his main point, which is÷
  • Then, he gives a demonstration of it which he backs up with examples.

OR:

  • After an introductory passage in which the author gives his opinion on÷, he goes on to dismiss the view held / put forward / by [X].
  • Then he attempts to prove his point by giving a demonstration illustrated with examples.
  • He bases his demonstration on statistics.
  • He backs up / supports / his thesis with convincing quotations from÷

e . Structure of your commentary

  • We shall first examine / consider / discuss / assess / concentrate on / focus our attention on + GN
  • Then we shall÷
  • Having discussed / After discussing / the writerĽs description of÷, we shall concentrate on÷and finally move on to the question of÷


II . The body of your commentary


a . Locating the references in the text

  • In line 7, the author says that÷
  • In the first paragraph, the writer assesses the importance of÷
  • In the very first line of the text, we learn that÷
  • From line 8 (down) to line 11, Mr. X develops the point he made at the beginning of the second paragraph.
  • Throughout / all through / the text, the writer keeps reminding us that÷
  • As the writer puts it in line 9,  ÷┤

b . Describing what the writer does

  • The author writes / says / claims / asserts / maintains / declares / states that÷
  • He gives an account of events / of a situation.
  • He describes / depicts / portrays + GN
  • He raises the issue of + GN
  • He takes up / tackles / the subject of÷
  • He concentrates / focuses his attention / dwells on + GN
  • He draws attention to + GN
  • He insists on÷, he lays stress / emphasis on + GN
  • He underlines + GN OR that + sentence
  • He devotes 3 lines to + GN. He alludes to + GN
  • He quotes (from) the Bible to support his claim
  • He examines / considers / discusses / studies / analyses + GN
  • He illustrates / demonstrates / proves his point by saying that÷
  • He presents / provides the reader with examples
  • He expresses / gives / utters his opinion on + GN
  • He considers the arguments for or against
  • He indicates / points out the reasons
  • The reasons why÷
  • why / when / how /where / that + sentence 
  • He puts forward / develops the idea that÷
  • He concludes that÷
  • He summarizes / sums up his view by saying that÷

c . Commenting on the writerĽs words and arguments
· Explaining

  • What the author really means is that÷
  • By using the word  ÷┤, the author refers to÷
  • At that time, the term  puritan┤ was a word of abuse.
  • It was a derogatory / pejorative word
  • This is a clear reference to + GN
  • In line 8 the word  ship┤ is used metaphorically / in a figurative language / metaphorical sense. It means / it stands for / represents the church, whereas the phrase  crossing the ocean┤ (line 10) is used in the literal sense. (sens propre)
  •  He mentions  the heretics┤, that is (to say)/ namely / i.e. (id est)the Protestants who÷
  •  In other words, one could say that÷
  • In short / in brief / in a nutshell the author is aiming at convincing the reader that÷

·  Confirming and illustrating the writerĽs point

  • In line 10, the author says that most people were dissatisfied with the KingĽs policy. Indeed, many petitions were signed and riots took place in÷
  • The writerĽs point is confirmed / borne out by + GN
  • The author is (perfectly) justified in asserting that the Queen was worried in so far as + information
  • Moreover / what is more / in addition / besides + information
  • All the more so as÷
  • We must bear in mind that, at that time, the British economy was÷
  • This example must be set against the background of religious intolerance that prevailed at the time
  • We must study the economic background of these events
  • To illustrate this point, a few examples could be added/ adduced
  • This reminds one of + GN / that + phrase
  • This calls to mind + GN

· Drawing conclusions, putting forward hypotheses

  • It reveals / shows / proves / indicates / implies that÷
  • From this, we can infer / conclude / derive / gather that÷
  • Use modal verbs expressing conjecture: may / might / must
  • I presume / suppose / imagine

· Challenging the authorĽs view

  • Although the author is right to say that÷
  • However justified the author may be in claiming that÷
  • The author is perfectly right when he says that÷, yet / however we must add /bear in mind / make the point that
  •  
  • The writerĽs analysis / reasoning / demonstration is faulty / flawed / inaccurate
  • He is prejudiced / biased / in favour of / against÷
  • His account is partial / incomplete / partisan
  • He misjudges / misunderstands + GN
  • He overestimates / overrates / overvalues / exaggerates the importance of÷
  • He minimizes / undervalues / underestimated / plays down + GN
  • He seems to have a lot of preconceived ideas on + GN
  • He totally ignores the fact that÷ (il ne tient absolument pas compte du fait que..)
  • He fails to mention + GN OR + that÷
  • His criticism is (totally) irrelevant / unfounded / off the point / because÷

 III . Conclusion

  • In conclusion  / to conclude we can say that÷ (pas  as a conclusion┤)
  • In this commentary, we have shown / demonstrated that÷
  • In view of the historical context, we can conclude that÷
  • We shall sum up by saying that÷

· Assessing the historical value of the document

  • It is a valuable / reliable / historical  document since it÷
  • It can be trusted because÷
  • It has no great historical value. It is unreliable since it÷
  • It sheds new light on the debated question of + GN
  • It allows the modern reader to understand÷
  • With the benefit of hindsight (=┤rétrospectivement┤)/ retrospectively we can say that this document had a tremendous influence on + GN
  • [X]Ľs opinion was confirmed / disproved by what happened later, that is÷


IV . Additional remarks


a . Tense

  • Most of the time, you will have to use the present to describe what the author does : e.g. The author underlines the fact that÷
  • Use the simple past and not the present tense to refer to historical events  e.g.  Henri VIII came to the throne in 1509
  • Do not use  will┤ or  shall┤ to refer to past events in English!  Jacques 1er succédera à Elisabeth en 1603┤ : James I succeeded / was to succeed her in 1603┤.

b . Capital letters

  • Remember that the English system is different from the French one. e.g. Then English (les Anglais), the English constitution (la constitution anglaise), the English language (la langue anglaise). In English both nouns and adjectives of nationality have a capital letter.

c . Link words

Enumeration

  • Pour commencer: First / to begin with / to start with÷
  • Ne pas dire *at first ni *at last.
  • Pour ajouter des arguments par ordre croissant dĽimportance, utilisez:
  • Secondly, and far more importantly / above all / on top of it all / last but not least / most important of all
  • Par ordre décroissant, commencez par : First and foremost / First and most important(ly)÷

Transition

  • We have discussed WolseyĽs part in the divorce suit. Now, let us examine÷
  • As for / As to the PopeĽs attitude, ÷
  • With reference to / with respect to / with regard to / as regards / regarding the reaction of the bishops÷
  • Let us now turn to÷

Contrast

  • Henri VIII did not favour Protestant ideas. On the contrary, he remained faithful to traditional Catholic dogmas.
  • On the one hand, he severed all links with Rome. On the other hand, he retained the traditional Catholic hierarchy.
  • He never promoted Protestantism. Instead, he persecuted protestants.

Concession

  • Phrase + Yet / however / still / nevertheless + phrase
  • Although / even though + proposition + phrase

 V . Additional vocabulary (synonyms)

  • Admit : acknowledge, concede, disclose, reveal; recognize
  • Confirm : establish, reinforce; endorse, verify
  • Deny : contradict, disagree with, disprove, oppose, refute; discard, disclaim, reject
  • Describe : define, detail, explain, express, illustrate, report, specify
  • Explain : define, demonstrate, illustrate, make clear / plain; give an explanation for, give a reason for, justify
  • Imply : give (someone) to understand, insinuate, suggest; indicate, mean, presuppose
  • Indicate : add up to, denote, imply, manifest, point to, reveal, signify, suggest; designate, specify; express
  • Justify : confirm, defend, establish, support
  • Show : indicate, present, reveal; demonstrate, explain, point out, present, prove
  • Specify : be specific about, designate, mention.
  • ...send us more such voc !

OPUS MARKET

La dissertation de civilisation
par Bernard Gilbert, format PDF, 30 pages.

.

TRANSLATION BOOTH

traduction
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Presse

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Midsummer Night's Dream

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Eliza Bishop
Complete Poems

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Le commentaire
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